3-4). 668 aa (c)). 25, 39). 391) and to provide for, “the preservation from injury of all timber, birds, mineral deposits, and natural curiosities or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition as nearly as possible” (16 U.S.C. 14,246-14,248; Giambelluca and Luke 2007, pp. Fish & Wildlife Service announced a final rule that would remove the hawk — a symbol of Hawaiian royalty — from the federal list of threatened and endangered species. Another peer reviewer commented they were not convinced eucalyptus would be incompatible with Hawaiian hawk foraging and nesting; rather, the size, juxtaposition, and density of the woodland will determine the use by Hawaiian hawks. In addition, Hawaiian hawks have demonstrated the ability to maintain a viable, steady population through prolonged periods of drought (Gorresen et al. The IRWG included scientific experts from universities and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and a Service biologist. ; USGS 2019, in litt.). Fish and Wildlife Service is removing the ’io, or Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), from the endangered … 2013, p. 751). At both stages in this process—the stage of screening potential portions to identify any portions that warrant further consideration and the stage of undertaking the more detailed analysis of any portions that do warrant further consideration—it might be more efficient for us to address the “significance” question or the “status” question first. Be sure to leave feedback using the 'Feedback' button on the bottom right of each page! 58-63). Copyright © 2010-2020 Honolulu Civil Beat Inc. All rights reserved. A new concern in 2014 was climate change, and, more specifically, the encroachment of invasive strawberry guava into the hawk’s habitat when temperatures rose. Testing the effects of pesticides on representative wildlife species prior to pesticide registration is specifically required. Even a large-scale catastrophe such as a major hurricane or fire is unlikely to cause the extinction or endangerment of a hawk that can effectively use regenerating forests as foraging areas and can nest in relatively small patches of older forests that are likely to remain intact following such an event. There was no significant difference in densities found in 1998 and 2007, and no evidence that the Hawaiian hawk's spatial distribution had changed (Gorresen et al. rendition of the daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov does not for better understanding how a document is structured but 658, 661). 2018, entire; University of Hawaii College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources-Rapid Ohia Death 2019, entire). comm.). Our Response: We have evaluated gunshot wound cases under Recovery Plan Implementation and our Factor B discussion, above. Some of the potential crops for renewable energy include sunflowers (herb) and Jatropha curcas (large shrub to small trees) from which oils are extracted. Civil Beat ® is a registered trademark of Honolulu Civil Beat Inc. This determination is based on a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial data, including comments received, which indicates the Hawaiian hawk no longer meets the definition of an endangered species or a threatened species under the Act. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt included the Hawaiian hawk on a list of 29 species whose status on the Endangered Species List would be changed. 10, 12, 17-18, 32-33; Emanuel et al. Therefore, we have incorporated this PVA into the relevant analyses, but have not based our decision solely on it, based on its limited scope and uncertainty. The hawk, which is endemic to Hawaii, was first listed as endangered in 1967. Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed several times—most recently in 2014—taking the Hawaiian Hawk off the endangered species list. At the time of listing in 1967, it was thought that the Hawaiian hawk population was in the low hundreds; however, there was little information pertaining to Hawaiian hawk abundance and distribution prior to listing, so this estimate has been questioned. The USFS will continue to provide technical assistance and monitor the impacts of this biocontrol agent. The OFR/GPO partnership is committed to presenting accurate and reliable We have no evidence that the Hawaiian hawk population is suffering from small population effects such as inbreeding depression. Our Response: The nonnative little fire ant has spread across the island of Hawaii (Lee et al. Humans and the abundant wood boring ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus spp.) We developed a preliminary in-house female-specific stochastic PVA model for the Hawaiian hawk (Vorsino and Nelson 2016, unpublished data) using the mean and variance values of age-specific survival and fecundity in native, mixed, and exotic habitats (Gorresen et al. 1986, pp. This correction factor was used for the analysis of all 1998 to 1999 and 2007 survey data (Klavitter and Marzluff 2007, entire; Gorresen et al. Happy New Year! During the public comment period for that 1993 proposed rule, several commenters expressed concerns that the population data used in the proposal were not current and that the hawk's breeding success was insufficiently known to warrant reclassification. Our Response: Large portions of the Hawaiian hawk's range on Hawaii are in montane upland areas that are potentially more vulnerable to damage from hurricanes, Should the eye of a powerful hurricane strike the island of Hawaii it would cause widespread damage to ohia trees and other trees Hawaiian hawks use for nesting and perching, which would create conditions that may allow for expansion of nonnative, ecosystem-disrupting plants. Hawaiian hawks were distributed across the island of Hawaii and occupied virtually all forest types, native and nonnative, except for the extremely arid parts of the island (e.g., grasslands of the northwest part of the island and Kau desert) (Scott et al. But for a small nonprofit newsroom that provides free content with no paywall, readership growth alone can’t sustain our journalism. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists and others on the ground in helping to save the species from the brink of extinction. 2-9, 15-16; Scott et al. However, habitat loss due to invasive plants and the spread of rapid ohia death continue to be a threat to the species. 215-219; Muller-Dombois and Boehmer 2013, entire). Outreach to farmers and hunters regarding the State-protected status of the Hawaiian hawks and their cultural importance may help reduce negative perceptions and subsequent incidence of persecution. This final rule incorporates the following changes, based on comments we received on our proposed rule: (1) The proposed rule stated the elevation range of the Hawaiian hawk was 1,000 to 8,530 feet (ft) (300 to 2,600 meters (m)). For a particular portion, if we cannot answer both questions in the affirmative, then that portion does not warrant further consideration and the species does not warrant listing because of its status in that portion of its range. By 2014, there were approximately 85,173 housing units on the island of Hawaii, with 4,811 building permits issued, the highest level since 2006 (County of Hawaii 2015, p. 144). Four comments were from peer reviewers, three of these on the proposed rule and one on the PDM plan. You're officially signed up for our daily newsletter, the Morning Beat. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. In total, we accepted public comments on the proposed delisting of the Hawaiian hawk for 270 days. The documents posted on this site are XML renditions of published Federal Confirmation that a portion does indeed meet one of these prongs does not create a presumption, prejudgment, or other determination as to whether the species is an endangered species or threatened species. We are unaware of any downed Hawaiian hawks resulting from wind turbines. (38) Comment: One commenter stated that the recovery plan criteria have not been met, and that the Service never produced delisting criteria in the recovery plan or PDM plan. The Hawaiian hawk joined the Endangered Species List in 1967, fewer than six months after passage of the original Endangered Species Preservation Act, the predecessor to … Ohia, one of the dominant forest trees across the main Hawaiian Islands, can close its stomata (gas exchange cells) during periods of high sulfur dioxide exposure to protect itself from vog damage (USGS 2019, in litt.). Emergent diseases, such as West Nile virus, have the potential to influence Hawaiian hawk viability in the future, but we cannot predict if or when that may occur. (29) Comment: Many commenters stated that there are insufficient data to delist the Hawaiian hawk. The Act does not define the term “foreseeable future.” Our implementing regulations at 50 CFR 424.11(d) set forth a framework within which we evaluate the foreseeable future on a case-by-case basis. The results prompted the Service to publish a proposed rule to delist the Hawaiian hawk, due to recovery and new information, on August 6, 2008 (73 FR 45680), with a 60-day comment period that closed October 6, 2008. ; CDC 2019, in litt.). 10-11, 47). For instance, the administration announced new rules in August that will make it harder for agencies to analyze the threats from climate change when considering future protections for wildlife. 77-80). It remains unclear if hawks will use these areas immediately following a harvest or at the time of initial planting. 2010, p. 1371, Figure 14; Giambelluca 2013, p. 6). (28) Comment: Several commenters said the Hawaiian hawk is an aumakua, or family guardian, for some Hawaiian families. Delisting the Hawaiian hawk went through another series of fits and starts after Barack Obama, a Democrat, was elected. The human population annual growth rate on the island has also decreased. ; Walter 2018, pers. There are currently no pending petitions that would change current agriculture, conservation, or rural zones to urban on the island of Hawaii (State of Hawaii Land Use Commission 2018, in litt.). The most recent island-wide survey was completed in the summer of 2007 (Gorresen et al. Additionally, the State is moving away from planting exotic timber tree species and toward planting native species when economically feasible (Koch and Walter 2018, in litt.). Although historical sightings and fossil records show the Hawaiian hawk may have once bred on adjacent islands in Hawaii, there are no quantitative data to show an actual range contraction or decrease in population abundance. Hunting is thought to be inhibited in areas with close-standing trees that limit the Hawaiian hawk's ability to maneuver in flight and areas where there is dense understory where prey can hide. The Service published a proposed rule to reclassify the Hawaiian hawk from endangered to threatened on August 5, 1993 (58 FR 41684), based on a population estimate suggesting the number of Hawaiian hawks had increased from the low hundreds reported at the time of listing (Griffin 1985, p. 25) to between 1,400 and 2,500 birds. In some areas, primarily mesic and dry habitats, the fire regime has changed dramatically with an accumulation of fine fuels, primarily alien grasses, which spread in the 1960s and 1970s (Smith and Tunison 1992, pp. It is predicted to briefly increase to 1.3 percent in the early 2020s, but is then anticipated to remain at 1.0 to 1.1 percent through 2045 (DBEDT 2018, p. 2). For information on how to view the updated PDM plan, see Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan Overview, below. The recovery plan was never updated to include criteria for delisting the Hawaiian hawk. We have determined that the Hawaiian hawk has recovered and no longer meets the definition of an endangered species or a threatened species under the Act. See also our responses to Comments (5) and (25). DLNR director Suzanne Case argued that the Hawaiian hawk, or ‘io, should not be removed from the federal list of threatened and endangered species. Only official editions of the 1998, pp. We included this PVA in our analysis of strawberry guava under our Factor A discussion, below (also see Recovery Plan Implementation, below). (4) Minimize or eliminate identified detrimental factors: Because the Hawaiian hawk has had a stable population for at least 30 years, and occupies both native and nonnative habitat, habitat loss and degradation are not currently considered a threat to the survival of Hawaiian hawks. This document has been published in the Federal Register. 2. Although drought frequency and duration may increase in Hawaii due to climate change (Chu et al. regulatory information on FederalRegister.gov with the objective of Koob added that Fish & Wildlife will continue to track the Hawaiian hawk in conjunction with the state, so if there are any dips in the population the agency can reassess its status. 1986, pp. While Hamakua and Kau had relatively high Hawaiian hawk densities in orchard forests (0.78 ± 0.27 and 0.58 ± 0.27 hawks per square kilometer (km2)), respectively), Puna's highest Hawaiian hawk density was in shrubland (0.40 + 0.12 hawks per km2) (Gorresen et al. See our discussion above under Factor C for further details. Regardless of which question we address first, if we reach a negative answer with respect to the first question that we address, we do not need to evaluate the second question for that portion of the species' range. This repetition of headings to form internal navigation links 2019b), and little fire ants are known to cause significant injuries and developmental problems in adults and chicks of ground-nesting seabirds and other species of ground-nesting birds (Plentovich 2019, in litt.). While we recognize that ROD is a threat to the integrity of native ohia forests and species solely dependent on ohia trees, Hawaiian hawks are not solely dependent on native forests and are highly adaptable. Additionally, at the time of listing, raptors around the world were declining due to contaminants such as DDT (Newton 1979, in Newton 2017, p. 101). Harassment and shooting do unfortunately occur. The MBTA and its implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 20 and 21) prohibit take (killing or harming), possession, import, export, transport, selling, purchase, barter, or offering for sale, purchase or barter, any migratory bird, their eggs, parts, and nests, except as authorized under a valid permit (50 CFR 21.11). Our Response: We acknowledge and greatly appreciate the cultural significance of Hawaiian hawks to the Hawaiian people. Because Hawaiian hawks have maintained a stable population of approximately 3,000 individuals over at least three decades, despite the more widespread use of SGARs prior to 2011, we do not consider rodenticides to be a threat to the survival of the Hawaiian hawk. He said the agency relied on the decade-old population study because that’s what was available at the time, and no one provided any new numbers that invalidated those estimates. ; USFS 2016, p. 2). 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If post-delisting monitoring detects a significant decline in the Hawaiian hawk population, or a significant change in habitat so that it would not support a self-sustaining Hawaiian hawk population, relisting may be warranted. “Species” is defined by the Act as including any species or subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate population segment of fish or wildlife that interbreeds when mature (16 U.S.C. ; U.S. Drought Monitor-Hawaii Data 2019, entire), which exacerbate the risk of fire; however, the Hawaiian hawk population has remained stable and viable. When vog mixes directly with moisture on the leaves of plants it can cause severe chemical burns, which can damage or kill plants. 926; 16 U.S.C. Siracusa said she kept a log of ‘io sightings and “hearings,” and that over the years her entries became increasingly infrequent. In addition, the species no longer meets the definition of an endangered species or a threatened species. No explanation for the recovery goal of 1,500 to 2,500 birds is provided in the recovery plan, but these numbers are presumably based on the earliest population estimate (Griffin 1985, entire). 119-121; Griffin et al. ; USFWS 2017, in litt. We address forest loss and gain further and provide information on related conservation actions under our Factor A discussion, above. comm.). Sign up for our FREE morning newsletter and face each day more informed. They are most often trapped and killed to be stuffed as trophies. According to State and private foresters, forest areas on the island have increased, particularly native forest areas. Examples include fallow sugarcane fields and areas currently being used for diversified agriculture, grazing, and timber production. Since the Hawaiian hawk was listed as an endangered species (32 FR 4001; March 11, 1967), there has been a marked increase in protection of native forests, lands set aside for conservation in perpetuity, and ongoing on-the-ground conservation efforts. Using the 2007 survey data, they estimated the population to number 3,085 hawks (95 percent CI=2,496 to 3,680). Orchard areas in the Kona region had significantly lower Hawaiian hawk density than native forest and mixed native exotic forest for the same region. 70-71; Scott et al. 668aa(c)). Historically, fires on the island of Hawaii were infrequent (Smith and Tunison 1992, pp. 1995, p. 179), other studies on Buteo species outside of Hawaii have found that reproductive success was not affected by the degree of urbanization around nest sites, and that reproductive rates of Buteo species in areas of human habitat were not affected by urbanization (Rottenborn 2000, p. 18; Dyukstra et al. Fish & Wildlife Service is asking for input on a proposal to remove the Hawaiian hawk from the endangered species list. Additionally, the human population growth rate on the island of Hawaii is less than previously anticipated and expected to level off in the early 2020s, and subdivisions on the island have plateaued (see Recovery Plan Implementation and Factor A discussion, above). On the effective date of this rule (see DATES, above), shooting of Hawaiian hawks will remain illegal under both the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA; 16 U.S.C. Her concerns, like those of others opposed to the delisting, didn’t have the desired effect. Fish and Wildlife Service Tuesday. Katherine Mullett, Acting Field Supervisor, telephone: 808-792-9400. This table of contents is a navigational tool, processed from the And Giambelluca 2011, the potential for the fish and Wildlife Office 's website ( http: //www.regulations.gov Docket... 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